By Edwin H. Spanier
Meant to be used either as a textual content and a reference, this ebook is an exposition of the elemental rules of algebraic topology. the 1st 3rd of the booklet covers the basic staff, its definition and its program within the research of masking areas. the point of interest then turns to homology conception, together with cohomology, cup items, cohomology operations, and topological manifolds. the remainder 3rd of the e-book is dedicated to Homotropy conception, masking uncomplicated evidence approximately homotropy teams, functions to obstruction conception, and computations of homotropy teams of spheres. within the later components, the most emphasis is at the software to geometry of the algebraic instruments built previous.
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Extra resources for Algebraic Topology '66
Differential diagnoses include epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, inherited epidermolysis bullosa, bullous pem- phigoid, and linear IgA dermatosis. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa is generally sparsely inﬂamed, as may be linear IgA dermatosis. When present, intense accumulations of eosinophils at the base of a bulla, or along the basement membrane in intact skin, favor a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid, while intense neutrophils in the same location support epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. MMP in dogs may feature lichenoid dermatitis, which is not generally seen in other subepidermal vesicular diseases.
Facially predominant pemphigus foliaceus Fig. 15 Canine paraneoplastic pemphigus, featuring an irregular, suprabasilar cleft with lifting of the overlying epidermis. (Photograph courtesy T. ) 38 Diseases of the epidermis Fig. 16 Higher magniﬁcation of canine paraneoplastic pemphigus. There is apoptosis of keratinocytes of the epidermis overlying the cleft (at right). Note residual basal cells at base of cleft (at left). , De Meulemeester, J. et al. (1998) Paraneoplastic pemphigus in a dog. Vet Dermatol 9, 127–34.
Contain red blood cells, eosinophils, or neutrophils. Intravesicular eosinophils, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells have been reported in dogs; 52% of 66 skin biopsies contained uninﬂamed vesicles (Olivry, 2003). In dogs, the superﬁcial dermis contains neutrophils, eosinophils, and often lymphocytes and plasma cells. Inﬂammation is usually lichenoid in putatively chronic lesions and may be found in the absence of subepidermal bulla formation. This pattern of inﬂammation is attributed to the anatomic location of the mucocutaneous lesions, and is as observed in other lichenoid dermatoses of mucous membranes or mucocutaneous junctions, such as mucocutaneous pyoderma (see Chapter 11).