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Of greatest significance has been the fact that technology-based agriculture had not come to Africa on a significant scale. Most of the agricultural growth that has occurred has been due to expansion of cultivated area, not yield increases. There are many reasons for this. For one, there has been little investment in irrigation, which was a major input into Asia's Green Revolution. In addition, unlike Asia, there has been little demand by farmers for yield increasing agriculture technologies. The reasons for these investment shortfalls are complex.

2 Unfortunately, data limitations in earlier years do not permit an assessment of the evolution of rural poverty in most countries. 50Nigeria7834Tanzania5961Uganda7632Zaire7632Zambia8846Sources: World Bank. 1994. C. Draft for Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Nigeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Uganda, Zambia. Data based on primary survey undertaken in each country; David Sahn, Paul Dorosch, Stephen Younger. 1994. " Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program, Cornell University, New York. 8; World Bank.

Inappropriate agricultural marketing and pricing as well as fiscal and exchange rate policies have reduced the profitability of market-oriented agriculture, prevented significant gains in agricultural productivity and contributed to the persistence of rural poverty. Poorly conceived and implemented agricultural projects have not helped. The lack of agricultural intensification in most of Africa has meant that expanding rural populations must depend on increasing cropped area, to the detriment, in many cases, of natural resource sustainability.

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