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By Christopher D. Gerrard, Greg D. Posehn, Granville Ansong

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Extra resources for Agricultural pricing policy in Eastern Africa: a macroeconomic simulation for Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Zambia, Part 76

Example text

Under a floating exchange rate regime, the equilibrium value is determined by the intersection of the supply and demand for the domestic currency. The demand for the domestic currency arises from the country's exports and from capital inflows. The supply arises from imports and capital outflows. Under a fixed exchange rate regime, however, the government fixes the exchange rate at, above, or below the equilibrium value of the currency. At a rate below the equilibrium value, with the demand for domestic currency greater than the supply, the government will accumulate foreign exchange reserves.

An import-substitution regime may contain some "export-promotion" measures which offset some of the disincentives to production for export. An export-promotion regime may include some tariffs which are nonetheless smaller than the subsidies given to production for export. The above definitions are also qualitative; they say nothing about the degree of bias. In this respect, there exists an essential asymmetry between the two types of regimes. Tariffs are revenue-creating; the government can in practice implement an import-substitution regime with an extreme degree of bias.

An import-substitution regime may contain some "export-promotion" measures which offset some of the disincentives to production for export. An export-promotion regime may include some tariffs which are nonetheless smaller than the subsidies given to production for export. The above definitions are also qualitative; they say nothing about the degree of bias. In this respect, there exists an essential asymmetry between the two types of regimes. Tariffs are revenue-creating; the government can in practice implement an import-substitution regime with an extreme degree of bias.

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