By Noel Weeks
The incidence of treaties during the old close to East has been investigated on a couple of events, usually with a view to get to the bottom of convinced questions coming up within the biblical box. due to that spotlight, the lifestyles of the same establishment in a few assorted cultures has no longer been handled as an issue in itself. in most cases the lifestyles of treaties through the region has been taken with no consideration, or an easy borrowing version has been used to provide an explanation for how comparable kinds got here for use in numerous cultures. Why kinds have been comparable around the zone has no longer been probed. This paintings investigates treaty occurrences in numerous cultures and reveals that the kinds used correlate with methods of protecting political keep an eye on either internally and over vassals. comparable recommendations are projected in reliable debts of heritage. hence it is easy to approximately distinguish threats in accordance with energy from persuasion in keeping with benevolence and historic precedent, notwithstanding a variety of combos of those take place. there's a most likely extra connection of the capacity selected to the measure of centralisation of strength in the society. Underlying the neighborhood traditions is a standard culture which should be dated to the pre-literate interval. Biblical covenants healthy inside this development. The cultures taken care of are Mesopotamia, the Hittites, Egypt, Syrian centres and Israel.
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Extra info for Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships
101. J. J. Wiseman, The Vassal Treaties of Esarhaddon\ Bi. Or. 19(1962), pp. 159-62 (162). 102. Tukulti-Ninurta I made a decree (riksu) for an official. The contents are largely destroyed: E. Weidner, 'Studien zur Zeitgeschichte Tukulti-Ninurtas F, AfO 13(1940), pp. 109-24 (114). 38 Admonition and Curse Mesopotamia in the First Millennium In the earlier part of the first millennium103 the Assyrian annals continue their infrequent references to treaties. 105 The particularly voluminous writings of Ashur-nasir-apli II raise an interesting question.
9, 10. 96. EA 16:4. Note also the reaction of the Babylonian king (EA 9:31-35). 97. E. Weidner, 'Hof- und Harems-Erlasse assyrischer Konige aus dem 2. Jahrtausend v. ', AfO 17(1956), 257-93. For the dating of the relevant texts see the discussion in H. Freydank, Beitrage zur mittelassyrischen Chronologic und Geschichte (Berlin: Akadamie Verlag, 1991), p. 89. 98. Cf. H. A. Speiser, One Hundred New Selected Nuzi Texts (AASOR 16; New Haven: American Schools of Oriental Research, 1936), p. 37, no. 51.
Note Grayson's discussion of the inversion of the chronological order at this point in the text. 78. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, p. 158, 11. 5'-6'. 79. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles, p. 162, ii:l'; p. 165, ii:27, 28; p. 166, iii:18; p. 167, iii:24, 25. 80. E. G. Lambert, Three Unpublished Fragments of the Tukulti-Ninurta Epic', AfO 18(1967), pp. 38-51. For general discussion of the text see P. Machinist, 'Literature as Politics: The Tukulti-Ninurta Epic and the Bible', CBQ 38(1976), pp.