By Paul Dimeo
This booklet bargains a brand new heritage of drug use in game. It argues that the belief of stoning up to reinforce functionality has now not regularly been the main issue or ‘evil’ we now imagine it's. as an alternative, the late nineteenth century was once a time of a few experimentation and innovation mostly unhindered by way of speak of dishonest or future health hazards. via the interwar interval, experiments have been modernised within the new laboratories of workout physiologists. nonetheless there has been little or no experience that this was once opposite to the ethics or spirit of activity. activities, medicinal drugs and technology have been heavily associated for over part a century. the second one global War provided the impetus for either elevated use of substances and the emergence of an anti-doping reaction. by means of the tip of the Nineteen Fifties a brand new framework of ethics was once being imposed at the medications query that developed doping in hugely emotive phrases as an ‘evil’. along this emerged the technology and procedural paperwork of checking out. The years as much as 1976 laid the principles for 4 many years of anti-doping. This booklet deals a close and important figuring out of who was once concerned, what they have been attempting to in achieving, why they set approximately this activity and the context within which they labored. by way of doing so, it reconsiders the vintage dichotomy of ‘good anti-doping’ up opposed to ‘evil doping’. Winner of the 2007 Lord Aberdare Literary Prize for the easiest publication in British activities historical past.
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Extra resources for A History of Drug Use in Sport: 1876-1976: Beyond Good and Evil
The marathon of four years later, in the 1908 London Games, produced a controversy which some historians have taken to be doping-related. The Italian runner, Dorando Pietri, was leading the race in the final stretch when he fell over several times with exhaustion. Sensing the Italian deserved to win, officials and spectators helped him to his feet. He was first through the tape in dramatic fashion much to the crowd’s pleasure but disqualified and the race awarded to the unpopular American Johnny Hayes.
A group of Finnish runners benefited from his expertise, including Hannes Kolehmainen who took three gold medals at the 1912 Olympics and Paavo Nurmi who dominated distance events during the 1920s (Beamish and Ritchie 2005: 417). These coaches and athletes operated under a paradigm of ‘natural’ limits within which only the strategy of conserving energy could lead to higher levels of achievement. However, by the 1930s, scientific research on human physiology was beginning to show that interval training, resistance training and varying the levels of exercise intensity were among the factors that could contribute to improving performance further.
The demands of social reform and industrial production meant drugs could be useful as a way to ‘solve’ fatigue, while traditionalists and temperance campaigners saw all manner of vices in drugs. This is one of the most important chapters in the history of doping. It is the period in which drugs make their appearance in sport, and in which the science of doping is born. It set the tone for the twentieth century. The science of doping John Hoberman (1992) has argued that physiologists who experimented on the effects of drugs in sports performance were more interested in the drugs themselves than in how scientists could offer advice for improving performance.